With-no-lysine (WNK) kinases are a novel family of protein kinases characterized by an atypical placement of the catalytic lysine. Mutations of 2 family members, WNK1 and WNK4, cause pseudohypoaldosteronism type 2 (PHA2), an autosomal-dominant disease characterized by hypertension and hyperkalemia. WNK1 and WNK4 stimulate clathrin-dependent endocytosis of renal outer medullar potassium 1 (ROMK1), and PHA2-causing mutations of WNK4 increase the endocytosis. How WNKs stimulate endocytosis of ROMK1 and how mutations of WNK4 increase the endocytosis are unknown. Intersectin (ITSN) is a multimodular endocytic scaffold protein. Here we show that WNK1 and WNK4 interacted with ITSN and that the interactions were crucial for stimulation of endocytosis of ROMK1 by WNKs. The stimulation of endocytosis of ROMK1 by WNK1 and WNK4 required specific proline-rich motifs of WNKs, but did not require their kinase activity. WNK4 interacted with ROMK1 as well as with ITSN. Disease-causing WNK4 mutations enhanced interactions of WNK4 with ITSN and ROMK1, leading to increased endocytosis of ROMK1. These results provide a molecular mechanism for stimulation of endocytosis of ROMK1 by WNK kinases.
Guocheng He, Hao-Ran Wang, Shao-Kuei Huang, Chou-Long Huang
Primary defects in either podocytes or the glomerular basement membrane (GBM) cause proteinuria, a fact that complicates defining the barrier to albumin. Laminin β2 (LAMB2) is a GBM component required for proper functioning of the glomerular filtration barrier. To investigate the GBM’s role in glomerular filtration, we characterized GBM and overlying podocyte architecture in relation to development and progression of proteinuria in Lamb2–/– mice, which model Pierson syndrome, a rare congenital nephrotic syndrome. We found ectopic deposition of several laminins and mislocalization of anionic sites in the GBM, which together suggest that the Lamb2–/– GBM is severely disorganized, although it is ultrastructurally intact. Importantly, albuminuria was detectable shortly after birth and preceded podocyte foot process effacement and loss of slit diaphragms by at least 7 days. Expression and localization of slit diaphragm and foot process–associated proteins appeared normal at early stages. GBM permeability to the electron-dense tracer ferritin was dramatically elevated in Lamb2–/– mice, even before widespread foot process effacement. Increased ferritin permeability was not observed in nephrotic CD2-associated protein–null (Cd2ap–/–) mice, which have a primary podocyte defect. Together these data show that the GBM serves as a barrier to protein in vivo and that the glomerular slit diaphragm alone is not sufficient to prevent the passage of albumin into the urinary space.
George Jarad, Jeanette Cunningham, Andrey S. Shaw, Jeffrey H. Miner
A properly established and maintained podocyte intercellular junction, or slit diaphragm, is a necessary component of the selective permeability barrier of the kidney glomerulus. The observation that mutation or deletion of the slit diaphragm transmembrane protein nephrin results in failure of podocyte foot process morphogenesis and concomitant proteinuria first suggested the hypothesis that nephrin serves as a component of a signaling complex that directly integrates podocyte junctional integrity with cytoskeletal dynamics. The observations made herein provide the first direct evidence to our knowledge for a phosphorylation-mediated signaling mechanism by which this integrative function is derived. Our data support the model that during podocyte intercellular junction formation, engagement of the nephrin ectodomain induces transient Fyn catalytic activity that results in nephrin phosphorylation on specific nephrin cytoplasmic domain tyrosine residues. We found that this nephrin phosphorylation event resulted in recruitment of the SH2–SH3 domain–containing adapter protein Nck and assembly of actin filaments in an Nck-dependent fashion. Considered in the context of the role of nephrin family proteins in other organisms and the integral relationship of actin dynamics and junction formation, these observations establish a function for nephrin in regulating actin cytoskeletal dynamics.
Rakesh Verma, Iulia Kovari, Abdul Soofi, Deepak Nihalani, Kevin Patrie, Lawrence B. Holzman
Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) is the most common primary glomerular diagnosis resulting in end-stage renal disease. Defects in several podocyte proteins have been implicated in the etiology of FSGS, including podocin, α-actinin–4, CD2-associated protein (CD2AP), and TRPC6. Despite our growing understanding of genes involved in the pathogenesis of focal segmental sclerosis, the vast majority of patients with this disease, even those with a familial linkage, lack a clear genetic diagnosis. Here, we tested whether combinations of genetic heterozygosity (bigenic heterozygosity) that alone do not result in clinical kidney disease could function together to enhance susceptibility to glomerular damage and FSGS. Combinations of Cd2ap heterozygosity and heterozygosity of either synaptopodin (Synpo) or Fyn proto-oncogene (Fyn) but not kin of IRRE like 1 (Neph1) resulted in spontaneous proteinuria and in FSGS-like glomerular damage. These genetic interactions were also reflected at a functional level, as we found that CD2AP associates with Fyn and Synpo but not with Neph1. This demonstrates that bigenic heterozygosity can lead to FSGS and suggests that combined mutations in 2 or multiple podocyte genes may be a common etiology for glomerular disease.
Tobias B. Huber, Christopher Kwoh, Hui Wu, Katsuhiko Asanuma, Markus Gödel, Björn Hartleben, Ken J. Blumer, Jeffrey H. Miner, Peter Mundel, Andrey S. Shaw
We set out to confirm the long-held, but untested, assumption that dietary salt affects proximal reabsorption through reciprocal effects on the renin-angiotensin system in a way that facilitates salt homeostasis. Wistar rats were fed standard or high-salt diets for 7 days and then subjected to renal micropuncture for determination of single-nephron GFR (SNGFR) and proximal reabsorption. The tubuloglomerular feedback (TGF) system was used as a tool to manipulate SNGFR in order to distinguish primary changes in net proximal reabsorption (Jprox) from changes due to glomerulotubular balance. The influence of Ang II over Jprox was determined by the sensitivity of Jprox to the AT1 receptor antagonist, losartan. Plasma, whole kidneys, and fluid from midproximal tubules were assayed for Ang II content by radioimmunoassay. In rats on the standard diet, losartan reduced Jprox by 25% and reduced the maximum range of the TGF response by 50%. The high-salt diet suppressed plasma and whole-kidney Ang II levels. But the high-salt diet failed to reduce the impact of losartan on Jprox or the TGF response and actually caused tubular fluid Ang II content to increase. The persistent effect of Ang II on Jprox prevented a major rise in late proximal flow rate in response to the high-salt diet. These observations challenge the traditional model and indicate that the role of proximal tubular Ang II in salt-replete rats is to stabilize nephron function rather than to contribute to salt homeostasis.
Claudin-16 (Cldn16) is selectively expressed at tight junctions (TJs) of renal epithelial cells of the thick ascending limb of Henle’s loop, where it plays a central role in the reabsorption of divalent cations. Over 20 different mutations in the CLDN16 gene have been identified in patients with familial hypomagnesemia with hypercalciuria and nephrocalcinosis (FHHNC), a disease of excessive renal Mg2+ and Ca2+ excretion. Here we show that disease-causing mutations can lead to the intracellular retention of Cldn16 or affect its capacity to facilitate paracellular Mg2+ transport. Nine of the 21 Cldn16 mutants we characterized were retained in the endoplasmic reticulum, where they underwent proteasomal degradation. Three mutants accumulated in the Golgi complex. Two mutants were efficiently delivered to lysosomes, one via clathrin-mediated endocytosis following transport to the cell surface and the other without appearing on the plasma membrane. The remaining 7 mutants localized to TJs, and 4 were found to be defective in paracellular Mg2+ transport. We demonstrate that pharmacological chaperones rescued surface expression of several retained Cldn16 mutants. We conclude that FHHNC can result from mutations in Cldn16 that affect intracellular trafficking or paracellular Mg2+ permeability. Knowledge of the molecular defects associated with disease-causing Cldn16 mutations may open new venues for therapeutic intervention.
P. Jaya Kausalya, Salah Amasheh, Dorothee Günzel, Henrik Wurps, Dominik Müller, Michael Fromm, Walter Hunziker
The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) Cl– channel plays vital roles in fluid transport in many epithelia. While CFTR is expressed along the entire nephron, its function in renal tubule epithelial cells remains unclear, as no specific renal phenotype has been identified in cystic fibrosis. CFTR has been proposed as a regulator of the 30 pS, ATP-sensitive renal K channel (Kir1.1, also known as renal outer medullar K [ROMK]) that is critical for K secretion by cells of the thick ascending limb (TAL) and distal nephron segments responsive to aldosterone. We report here that both ATP and glibenclamide sensitivities of the 30 pS K channel in TAL cells were absent in mice lacking CFTR and in mice homozygous for the ΔF508 mutation. Curcumin treatment in ΔF508-CFTR mice partially reversed the defect in ATP sensitivity. We demonstrate that the effect of CFTR on ATP sensitivity was abrogated by increasing PKA activity. We propose that CFTR regulates the renal K secretory channel by providing a PKA-regulated functional switch that determines the distribution of open and ATP-inhibited K channels in apical membranes. We discuss the potential physiological role of this functional switch in renal K handling during water diuresis and the relevance to renal K homeostasis in cystic fibrosis.
Ming Lu, Qiang Leng, Marie E. Egan, Michael J. Caplan, Emile L. Boulpaep, Gerhard H. Giebisch, Steven C. Hebert
Congenital malformations of the urinary tract are a major cause of renal failure in children and young adults. They are often caused by physical obstruction or by functional impairment of the peristaltic machinery of the ureter. The underlying molecular and cellular defects are, however, poorly understood. Here we present the phenotypic characterization of a new mouse model for congenital ureter malformation that revealed the molecular pathway important for the formation of the functional mesenchymal coating of the ureter. The gene encoding the T-box transcription factor Tbx18 was expressed in undifferentiated mesenchymal cells surrounding the distal ureter stalk. In Tbx18–/– mice, prospective ureteral mesenchymal cells largely dislocalized to the surface of the kidneys. The remaining ureteral mesenchymal cells showed reduced proliferation and failed to differentiate into smooth muscles, but instead became fibrous and ligamentous tissue. Absence of ureteral smooth muscles resulted in a short hydroureter and hydronephrosis at birth. Our analysis also showed that the ureteral mesenchyme derives from a distinct cell population that is separated early in kidney development from that of other mesenchymal cells of the renal system.
Rannar Airik, Markus Bussen, Manvendra K. Singh, Marianne Petry, Andreas Kispert
To investigate the function of Cx43 during hypertension, we studied the mouse line Cx43KI32 (KI32), in which the coding region of Cx32 replaces that of Cx43. Within the kidneys of homozygous KI32 mice, Cx32 was expressed in cortical and medullary tubules, as well as in some extra- and intraglomerular vessels, i.e., at sites where Cx32 and Cx43 are found in WT mice. Under such conditions, renin expression was much reduced compared with that observed in the kidneys of WT and heterozygous KI32 littermates. After exposure to a high-salt diet, all mice retained a normal blood pressure. However, whereas the levels of renin were significantly reduced in the kidneys of WT and heterozygous KI32 mice, reaching levels comparable to those observed in homozygous littermates, they were not further affected in the latter animals. Four weeks after the clipping of a renal artery (the 2-kidney, 1-clip [2K1C] model), 2K1C WT and heterozygous mice showed an increase in blood pressure and in the circulating levels of renin, whereas 2K1C homozygous littermates remained normotensive and showed unchanged plasma renin activity. Hypertensive, but not normotensive, mice also developed cardiac hypertrophy. The data indicate that replacement of Cx43 by Cx32 is associated with decreased expression and secretion of renin, thus preventing the renin-dependent hypertension that is normally induced in the 2K1C model.
Jacques-Antoine Haefliger, Nathalie Krattinger, David Martin, Thierry Pedrazzini, Alessandro Capponi, Britta Döring, Achim Plum, Anne Charollais, Klaus Willecke, Paolo Meda
Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) of several organs results in complement activation, but the kidney is unique in that activation after I/R occurs only via the alternative pathway. We hypothesized that selective activation of this pathway after renal I/R could occur either because of a loss of complement inhibition or from increased local synthesis of complement factors. We examined the relationship between renal complement activation after I/R and the levels and localization of intrinsic membrane complement inhibitors. We found that loss of polarity of complement receptor 1–related protein y (Crry) in the tubular epithelium preceded activation of the alternative pathway along the basolateral aspect of the tubular cells. Heterozygous gene-targeted mice that expressed lower amounts of Crry were more sensitive to ischemic injury. Furthermore, inhibition of Crry expressed by proximal tubular epithelial cells in vitro resulted in alternative pathway–mediated injury to the cells. Thus, altered expression of a complement inhibitor within the tubular epithelium appears to be a critical factor permitting activation of the alternative pathway of complement after I/R. Increased C3 mRNA and decreased factor H mRNA were also detected in the outer medulla after I/R, suggesting that altered synthesis of these factors might further contribute to complement activation in this location.
Joshua M. Thurman, Danica Ljubanović, Pamela A. Royer, Damian M. Kraus, Hector Molina, Nicholas P. Barry, Gregory Proctor, Moshe Levi, V. Michael Holers