Aging is defined as the progressive deterioration of physiological function with age. Incidence of many pathologies increases with age, including neurological and cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Aging tissues become less adaptable and renewable, and cells undergo senescence, a process by which they “irreversibly” stop dividing. Senescence has been shown to serve as a tumor suppression mechanism with clear desirable effects. However, senescence also has deleterious consequences, especially for cardiovascular, metabolic, and immune systems. Sphingolipids are a major class of lipids that regulate cell biology, owing to their structural and bioactive properties and diversity. Their involvement in the regulation of aging and senescence has been demonstrated and studied in multiple organisms and cell types, especially that of ceramide and sphingosine-1-phosphate; ceramide induces cellular senescence and sphingosine-1–phosphate delays it. These discoveries could be very useful in the future to understand aging mechanisms and improve therapeutic interventions.
Magali Trayssac, Yusuf A. Hannun, Lina M. Obeid
Usage data is cumulative from July 2018 through May 2019.
Usage information is collected from two different sources: this site (JCI) and Pubmed Central (PMC). JCI information (compiled daily) shows human readership based on methods we employ to screen out robotic usage. PMC information (aggregated monthly) is also similarly screened of robotic usage.
Various methods are used to distinguish robotic usage. For example, Google automatically scans articles to add to its search index and identifies itself as robotic; other services might not clearly identify themselves as robotic, or they are new or unknown as robotic. Because this activity can be misinterpreted as human readership, data may be re-processed periodically to reflect an improved understanding of robotic activity. Because of these factors, readers should consider usage information illustrative but subject to change.