Michelle L. Hermiston, Zheng Xu, Ravindra Majeti, Arthur Weiss
Malcolm J. Low
Pneumococcus is the most common and aggressive cause of bacterial meningitis and induces a novel apoptosis-inducing factor–dependent (AIF–dependent) form of brain cell apoptosis. Loss of production of two pneumococcal toxins, pneumolysin and H2O2, eliminated mitochondrial damage and apoptosis. Purified pneumolysin or H2O2 induced microglial and neuronal apoptosis in vitro. Both toxins induced increases of intracellular Ca2+ and triggered the release of AIF from mitochondria. Chelating Ca2+ effectively blocked AIF release and cell death. In experimental pneumococcal meningitis, pneumolysin colocalized with apoptotic neurons of the hippocampus, and infection with pneumococci unable to produce pneumolysin and H2O2 significantly reduced damage. Two bacterial toxins, pneumolysin and, to a lesser extent, H2O2, induce apoptosis by translocation of AIF, suggesting new neuroprotective strategies for pneumococcal meningitis.
Johann S. Braun, Jack E. Sublett, Dorette Freyer, Tim J. Mitchell, John L. Cleveland, Elaine I. Tuomanen, Joerg R. Weber
IL-9 is a pleiotropic cytokine with multiple functions on many cell types involved in the pathology of human asthma. The constitutive overexpression of IL-9 in the lungs of transgenic mice resulted in an asthma-like phenotype. To define the contribution of IL-9 to lung inflammation we generated transgenic mice in which lung-specific expression of the IL-9 transgene is inducible by doxycycline. Transgene induction resulted in lymphocytic and eosinophilic infiltration of the lung, airway epithelial cell hypertrophy with mucus production, and mast cell hyperplasia, similar to that seen in mice that constitutively expressed IL-9 in their lungs. Various cytokines, including IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13, were expressed in the lung in response to IL-9. Blockade of IL-4 or IL-5 following IL-9 induction reduced airway eosinophilia without affecting mucus production. In contrast, neutralization of IL-13 completely abolished both lung inflammation and mucus production. These findings suggest that pathologic changes in the lung require additional signals beyond IL-9, provided by IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13, to develop fully.
Ulla-Angela Temann, Prabir Ray, Richard A. Flavell
Ingestion of apoptotic cells in vitro by macrophages induces TGF-β1 secretion, resulting in an anti-inflammatory effect and suppression of proinflammatory mediators. Here, we show in vivo that direct instillation of apoptotic cells enhanced the resolution of acute inflammation. This enhancement appeared to require phosphatidylserine (PS) on the apoptotic cells and local induction of TGF-β1. Working with thioglycollate-stimulated peritonea or LPS-stimulated lungs, we examined the effect of apoptotic cell uptake on TGF-β1 induction. Viable or opsonized apoptotic human Jurkat T cells, or apoptotic PLB-985 cells, human monomyelocytes that do not express PS during apoptosis, failed to induce TGF-β1. PS liposomes, or PS directly transferred onto the PLB-985 surface membranes, restored the TGF-β1 induction. Apoptotic cell instillation into LPS-stimulated lungs reduced proinflammatory chemokine levels in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). Additionally, total inflammatory cell counts in the BALF were markedly reduced 1–5 days after apoptotic cell instillation, an effect that could be reversed by opsonization or coinstillation of TGF-β1 neutralizing antibody. This reduction resulted from early decrease in neutrophils and later decreases in lymphocytes and macrophages. In conclusion, apoptotic cell recognition and clearance, via exposure of PS and ligation of its receptor, induce TGF-β1 secretion, resulting in accelerated resolution of inflammation.
Mai-Lan N. Huynh, Valerie A. Fadok, Peter M. Henson
Proper control of cell cycle progression is critical for the constant self-renewal, differentiation, and homeostasis of the hematopoietic system. Cells of all types share the common cell cycle regulators. The different expression patterns of common regulators, in a broad sense, define cell-type or lineage specificity. However, there remains the possibility of hematopoietic cell cycle regulators tailored to the demands of the hematopoietic system. Here we describe a novel protein, HTm4, which serves as a hematopoietic cell cycle regulator. Our data indicate that HTm4 is expressed in hematopoietic tissues and is tightly regulated during the differentiation of hematopoietic stem cells. It binds to cyclin-dependent kinase–associated (CDK-associated) phosphatase-CDK2 (KAP-CDK2) complexes, and the three proteins demonstrate similar patterns of cellular expression in human lymphoid tissues. HTm4 stimulates the phosphatase activity of KAP, and its C-terminal region is required for binding to KAP-CDK2 complexes and the modulation of KAP activity. Overexpression of HTm4 can cause cell cycle arrest at the G0/G1 phase. Thus, HTm4 is a novel hematopoietic modulator for the G1-S cell cycle transition.
José L. Donato, Jon Ko, Jeffery L. Kutok, Tao Cheng, Taro Shirakawa, Xiao-Quan Mao, David Beach, David T. Scadden, Mohamed H. Sayegh, Chaker N. Adra
BAFF (BLyS, TALL-1, THANK, zTNF4) is a member of the TNF superfamily that specifically regulates B lymphocyte proliferation and survival. Mice transgenic (Tg) for BAFF develop an autoimmune condition similar to systemic lupus erythematosus. We now demonstrate that BAFF Tg mice, as they age, develop a secondary pathology reminiscent of Sjögren’s syndrome (SS), which is manifested by severe sialadenitis, decreased saliva production, and destruction of submaxillary glands. In humans, SS also correlates with elevated levels of circulating BAFF, as well as a dramatic upregulation of BAFF expression in inflamed salivary glands. A likely explanation for disease in BAFF Tg mice is excessive survival signals to autoreactive B cells, possibly as they pass through a critical tolerance checkpoint while maturing in the spleen. The marginal zone (MZ) B cell compartment, one of the enlarged B cell subsets in the spleen of BAFF Tg mice, is a potential reservoir of autoreactive B cells. Interestingly, B cells with an MZ-like phenotype infiltrate the salivary glands of BAFF Tg mice, suggesting that cells of this compartment potentially participate in tissue damage in SS and possibly other autoimmune diseases. We conclude that altered B cell differentiation and tolerance induced by excess BAFF may be central to SS pathogenesis.
Joanna Groom, Susan L. Kalled, Anne H. Cutler, Carl Olson, Stephen A. Woodcock, Pascal Schneider, Jurg Tschopp, Teresa G. Cachero, Marcel Batten, Julie Wheway, Davide Mauri, Dana Cavill, Tom P. Gordon, Charles R. Mackay, Fabienne Mackay
It is estimated that up to one in five individuals develop pituitary gland tumors. Despite the common occurrence of these tumors, the pathogenetic mechanisms underlying their development remain largely unknown. We report the identification of a novel pituitary tumor–derived, N-terminally truncated isoform of FGF receptor-4 (ptd-FGFR4). The corresponding mRNA results from alternative transcription initiation and encodes a polypeptide that lacks a signal peptide and the first two extracellular Ig-like domains. ptd-FGFR4 has a distinctive cytoplasmic residence, is constitutively phosphorylated, and is transforming in vitro and in vivo. Here we show that targeted expression of ptd-FGFR4, but not FGFR4, results in pituitary tumors that morphologically recapitulate the human disease.
Shereen Ezzat, Lei Zheng, Xian-Feng Zhu, Gillian E. Wu, Sylvia L. Asa
The induction of autoimmunity by viruses has been attributed to numerous mechanisms. In mice, coxsackievirus B4 (CB4) induces insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) resembling the final step of disease progression in humans. The immune response following the viral insult clearly precipitates IDDM. However, the molecular pathway between viral infection and the subsequent activation of T cells specific for islet antigen has not been elucidated. These T cells could become activated through exposure to sequestered antigens released by damaged β cells, or they could have responded to factors secreted by the inflammatory response itself. To distinguish between these possibilities, we treated mice harboring a diabetogenic T cell repertoire with either the islet-damaging agent streptozotocin (STZ) or poly I:C, which nonspecifically activates T cells. Significantly, only treatment of mice with STZ resulted in IDDM and mimicked the effects observed following CB4 infection. Furthermore, antigen-presenting cells from STZ-treated mice were shown to directly activate autoreactive T cells and induce diabetes. Therefore, the primary role of CB4 in the precipitation of IDDM is to damage tissue, causing release and presentation of sequestered islet antigen. These events stimulate autoreactive T cells and thereby initiate disease.
Marc S. Horwitz, Alex Ilic, Cody Fine, Enrique Rodriguez, Nora Sarvetnick
Metabolic acidosis causes a reversal of polarity of HCO3– flux in the cortical collecting duct (CCD). In CCDs incubated in vitro in acid media, β-intercalated (HCO3–-secreting) cells are remodeled to functionally resemble α-intercalated (H+-secreting) cells. A similar remodeling of β-intercalated cells, in which the polarity of H+ pumps and Cl–/HCO3– exchangers is reversed, occurs in cell culture and requires the deposition of polymerized hensin in the ECM. CCDs maintained 3 h at low pH ex vivo display a reversal of HCO3– flux that is quantitatively similar to an effect previously observed in acid-treated rabbits in vivo. We followed intracellular pH in the same β-intercalated cells before and after acid incubation and found that apical Cl/HCO3 exchange was abolished following acid incubation. Some cells also developed basolateral Cl–/HCO3– exchange, indicating a reversal of intercalated cell polarity. This adaptation required intact microtubules and microfilaments, as well as new protein synthesis, and was associated with decreased size of the apical surface of β-intercalated cells. Addition of anti-hensin antibodies prevented the acid-induced changes in apical and basolateral Cl–/HCO3– exchange observed in the same cells and the corresponding suppression of HCO3– secretion. Acid loading also promoted hensin deposition in the ECM underneath adapting β-intercalated cells. Hence, the adaptive conversion of β-intercalated cells to α-intercalated cells during acid incubation depends upon ECM-associated hensin.
George J. Schwartz, Shuichi Tsuruoka, Soundarapandian Vijayakumar, Snezana Petrovic, Ayesa Mian, Qais Al-Awqati
To investigate the consequence of deficiency in thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFI), we generated homozygous TAFI-deficient mice by targeted gene disruption. Intercrossing of heterozygous TAFI mice produced offspring in the expected Mendelian ratio, indicating that transmission of the mutant TAFI allele did not lead to embryonic lethality. TAFI-deficient mice developed normally, reached adulthood, and were fertile. No gross physical abnormalities were observed up to 24 months of age. Hematological analysis of TAFI-deficient mice did not show any major differences including plasma fibrinogen level, prothrombin time, and activated partial thromboplastin time. TAFI-deficient mice did not suffer from excess bleeding as determined by blood loss following tail transection, although their plasma failed to prolong clot lysis time in vitro. In vivo, TAFI deficiency did not influence occlusion time in either an arterial or a venous injury model. TAFI deficiency did not improve survival rate compared with the wild-type in thrombin-induced thromboembolism, factor X coagulant protein–induced thrombosis, and endotoxin-induced disseminated intravascular coagulation. Furthermore, TAFI deficiency did not alter kaolin-induced writhing response, implying that TAFI does not play a major role in bradykinin catabolism. The current study demonstrates that TAFI deficiency does not change normal responses to acute challenges.
Mariko Nagashima, Zheng-Feng Yin, Lei Zhao, Kathy White, Yanhong Zhu, Nina Lasky, Meredith Halks-Miller, George J. Broze Jr., William P. Fay, John Morser
Modified LDL is a major cause of injury to the endothelium in diabetes. In the present study, we analyzed the effects on endothelial cells of LDL recovered from type 2 diabetic patients (dm-LDL) or from nondiabetic subjects (n-LDL). Treatment of human umbilical vein endothelial cells with dm-LDL, but not n-LDL, led to the accumulation of cells in G1. To dissect the molecular mechanisms of this effect, we analyzed the expression and function of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21waf, a cell cycle regulator known to be a target of the signal transducers and activators of transcription (STATs). dm-LDL led to transient STAT5 phosphorylation and the formation of a STAT5-containing complex and activated p21waf expression at the transcriptional level. Expression of the dominant-negative form of STAT5B, but not of STAT5A, significantly decreased both p21waf expression and the fraction of cells in G1. Finally, immunofluorescence analysis demonstrated that activated STAT5 is expressed in newly formed intraplaque vessels and in endothelial cells lining the luminal side of the plaque. Similarly, p21waf immunoreactivity was found in the neointimal vasculature. Our results suggest a role of STAT5B as a regulator of gene expression in diabetes-associated vascular disease.
Maria Felice Brizzi, Patrizia Dentelli, Marzia Pavan, Arturo Rosso, Roberto Gambino, Maria Grazia De Cesaris, Giovanni Garbarino, Giovanni Camussi, Gianfranco Pagano, Luigi Pegoraro
Recent evidence has defined an important role for PPARα in the transcriptional control of cardiac energy metabolism. To investigate the role of PPARα in the genesis of the metabolic and functional derangements of diabetic cardiomyopathy, mice with cardiac-restricted overexpression of PPARα (MHC-PPAR) were produced and characterized. The expression of PPARα target genes involved in cardiac fatty acid uptake and oxidation pathways was increased in MHC-PPAR mice. Surprisingly, the expression of genes involved in glucose transport and utilization was reciprocally repressed in MHC-PPAR hearts. Consistent with the gene expression profile, myocardial fatty acid oxidation rates were increased and glucose uptake and oxidation decreased in MHC-PPAR mice, a metabolic phenotype strikingly similar to that of the diabetic heart. MHC-PPAR hearts exhibited signatures of diabetic cardiomyopathy including ventricular hypertrophy, activation of gene markers of pathologic hypertrophic growth, and transgene expression–dependent alteration in systolic ventricular dysfunction. These results demonstrate that (a) PPARα is a critical regulator of myocardial fatty acid uptake and utilization, (b) activation of cardiac PPARα regulatory pathways results in a reciprocal repression of glucose uptake and utilization pathways, and (c) derangements in myocardial energy metabolism typical of the diabetic heart can become maladaptive, leading to cardiomyopathy.
Brian N. Finck, John J. Lehman, Teresa C. Leone, Michael J. Welch, Michael J. Bennett, Attila Kovacs, Xianlin Han, Richard W. Gross, Ray Kozak, Gary D. Lopaschuk, Daniel P. Kelly
Susceptibility to immune-mediated diabetes (IMD) in humans and NOD mice involves their inherently defective T cell immunoregulatory abilities. We have followed natural killer (NK) T cell numbers in patients with IMD, both by flow cytometry using mAbs to the characteristic junctions found in the T cell receptors of this cell subtype, and by semiquantitative RT-PCR for the corresponding transcripts. Both before and after clinical onset, the representation of these cells in patients’ PBMCs is reduced. We also report low numbers of resting CD4+ CD25+ T cells in IMD patients, a subset of T cells shown to have important immunoregulatory functions in abrogating autoimmunities in 3-day thymectomized experimental mice. Whereas a biased Th1 to Th2 cytokine profile has been suggested to underlie the pathogenesis of IMD in both species, we found defective production of IFN-γ in our patients after in vitro stimulation of their PBMCs by phorbol-myristate acetate and ionomycin and both IFN-γ and IL-4 deficiencies in Vα24+ NK T–enriched cells. These data suggest that multiple immunoregulatory T (Treg) cell defects underlie islet cell autoimmunity leading to IMD in humans and that these lesions may be part of a broad T cell defect.
Anjli Kukreja, Giulia Cost, John Marker, Chenhui Zhang, Zhong Sun, Karen Lin-Su, Svetlana Ten, Maureen Sanz, Mark Exley, Brian Wilson, Steven Porcelli, Noel Maclaren
A critical component of insulin action is the enzyme phosphoinositide (PI) 3-kinase. The major regulatory subunits of PI 3-kinase, p85α and its splice variants, are encoded by the Pik3r1 gene. Heterozygous disruption of Pik3r1 improves insulin signaling and glucose homeostasis in normal mice and mice made insulin-resistant by heterozygous deletion of the Insulin receptor and/or insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS1) genes. Reduced expression of p85 modulates the molecular balance between this protein, the p110 catalytic subunit of PI 3-kinase, and the IRS proteins. Thus, despite the decrease in p85α, PI 3-kinase activation is normal, insulin-stimulated Akt activity is increased, and glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity are improved. Furthermore, Pik3r1 heterozygosity protects mice with genetic insulin resistance from developing diabetes. These data suggest that regulation of p85α levels may provide a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of type 2 diabetes.
Franck Mauvais-Jarvis, Kohjiro Ueki, David A. Fruman, Michael F. Hirshman, Kei Sakamoto, Laurie J. Goodyear, Matteo Iannacone, Domenico Accili, Lewis C. Cantley, C. Ronald Kahn